Part Two of the Eighth Symphony is Mahler’s longest symphonic movement, the length of its texthe closing scene from Goethe’s Faust part two, is so extensive that it might well be considered beyond the limits of symphonic form. It Mahler treats his subject no less symphoniclly than he had with a latin hymn of part one developing thematic and motivic material with extraordinary invention throughout this hour long movement. He combines elements of various traditional forms and structural procedures, including merger of developmental techniques from sonata form, with strophic arrangement and theme and variations.
In his theme and variations Mahler reverses the usual procedure, so that as Donald Mitchell explains it, the theme that is the generator of the variations is heard complete only at the end of the variation sequence. This process of thematic evolution, if you will, takes us through an extraordinary number of variations by count 29, that leads the definitive statement of the principal theme in the Chorus Mysticus in the process of this creative approach to thematic development, Mahler unifies the two parts motivicly and synthesizes Baroque, Classical and Romantic styles into a symphonic drama of immense proportions, worthy of its famous text, Mahler’s multivac procedures have dramatic as well as musical function, directing our attention to motives, and entire themes from part one that sometimes allude to keywords and phrases from its hidden text.
Referential motives shed light upon Goethe’s text, while new motives evolved into dramatic statements that keep developing until they produce the main theme of Part Two in the closing section. In this respect alone, the eighth deserves to be considered the high watermark of symphonic design. Motives from part one do not operate merely as a reminder of past resolution, but as its fulfillment. Some of these motives appear in the opening Prelude which functions almost like an opera overture in presenting musical material to be developed throughout part two.
Part two is as close as Mahler ever came to composing an opera, apart from his work on Weber’s Die drei Pintos or, if you will, Das klagende Lied the opening prayer you’d may be likened to an overture and the use of solo arias, duets, choruses, and a variety of theatrical effects evidence the influence of Mahler’s work in the opera house. On the other hand, Hans Redlich refers to the eighth as a dramatic oratorio akin to lists St. Elizabeth containing dramatic elements in kaleidoscopic segments with very little symphonic content. In this characterization Redlich does not distinguish the stylistic mode of Part Two from that apart one, Philip Barford, on the contrary suggests that there are numerous stylistic differences between the parts, according to Barford, where part one is in classical sonata form, and fashioned upon contrapuntal designs influenced by baroque polyphony, part two is a loose rhapsodic movement, organized in freestyle that combines stylistic elements from the classical and romantic eras, and even reaches back to Gregorian chant for the musical setting of the anchorites chorus. Although Goethe’s text is clearly the focal point of the symphony, Mahler made it quite clear that the eighth was not a Faust symphony as such, Faust was for Mahler a symbol for questioning humanity.
The human spirit cannot accept its law without seeking to justify itself, but its quest for justification through the discovery of truth and meaning can either lead to failure and despair, or to creativity and self-fulfillment. Both Mahler and Goethe believed that the quest will eventually succeed by culminating in the metaphysical experience of absolute wisdom, power and love.
Several attempts have been made to subdivide part two intersections along with traditional principles of symphonic design, such as adagio, scherzo, and finale, but I agree with Donald Mitchell’s contrary view that attempts to divide Part Two into near replicas of traditional symphonic movements are often arbitrary, and rarely, if ever adequately account for cross-references and interchange of musical elements between such movements. Forcing such a creative organization of materials into the analytical straitjacket of classical symphonic form, does a disservice to Mahler’s invention of construction and diverts our attention from the real unifying element here, the motivic connections between parts one and two and the developmental process of thematic variations.
A remarkable 29 variations preceded the definitive statement of the principal theme. These variations are not presented as independent thematic reconfigurations of a definitive theme stated at the inception, but as a developing sequence that works its way gradually to completion of the theme. Hints of it can be found in two of Mahler’s earlier symphonies in the third, the evolutionary progression of movements from inanimate nature to a divine being originally conceived by Mahler replicates conceptually, what thematic evolution does musically and in the fourth, each of the first three movements contains some thematic element that points toward the principal theme of the song finale.
The tonal progression moves justice gradually toward fulfillment, taking an hour to progress only from the opening E flat minor to the closing E flat major, since the latter is also the principal key apart, one one wide like in the overall tonal process to eternal return. A Nietzschean philosophical concept implicit in several of Mahler symphonies, such as Das Lied, compare this total ground plan to that of the second Symphony, whose choral finale comes closest to the eighth and conception and spirit, while the second also ends in E flat, it begins in the tragic key of C minor, thus representing not the circularity of a return, but true progress from tragedy to redemption. This distinction is apt because the subject of the second Symphony, divine grace achieved through simple faith is not that of the eighth, whose basic conceptual principle is the conjunction of human creativity and divine love through the illumination of the senses.
The merger of divine and human love and the finale of the third now serves the purpose of stimulating creation in the eighth, which is both man and artist Mahler sets as the guiding principle to ultimate fulfillment, and thereby a sustainable justification of life. Love acts as a catalyst for true creativity, that is, in turn a source of expression for that which generates it, such as the quintessential element necessary for creativity that was missed from part one. But love cannot motivate creativity merely by expressing it, it must also be an integration of its essence into the worldly, in conjunction with the divine, such as occurs symbolically in the variation process of part two.
As in part one, the music presses toward fulfillment, but does not actually realize it. It’s realization having been inferred from the outset, thereby making the process more substantive, in part two love, as the creative inspiration merges with itself, through a process that is progressive, but in reality leads to the self same fulfillment, though on a firmer foundation from having undergone the process, while shifting from a sacred to a second or text, part two still contains spiritual even Quasar religious musical elements, such as the Gregorian chant used the anchorites Corps, and the church like motet of the Chorus Mysticus.
Mahler also interposes music with a religious theme, takes material from the angels movement of the Third Symphony, and Das himmlische Leben of the fourth. Goethe’s text is also replete with religious illusions that make the conjunction of the human and the divine perfectly appropriate. The balance of external and internal manifestations of human expression and part one is upset in part two, where the latter is more prominent. The opening bars recall the Gloria and lumen accende themes of part one, emerging from opaque shadows in an atmosphere of mysterious stillness, in which the light of wisdom seems to have faded. The anchorites chorus creates visions of external reality to music of profoundly internal sensibilities get anticipates the extrovert passions of Pater Ecstaticus, and the dogma of Pater Profundus, whose music climax is on the agenda theme, itself a prayerful love and enlightenment. The light motive permeates part two, still a symbol of enlightenment, akin to lumen accende as ascendance through light. Since light can shine inward as well as outward, it is also a symbol of the internalization of the external, which is an important aspect of the message of part one.
The positive-negative and internal-external dualities, so essential to the conceptual framework of part one, seem to have been eliminated in part two. As Mitchell points out, there is a quote, no role For Mephistopheles in that part of Goethe’s Faust, that Mahler chose to set, on quote, “Mahler intended to create a work that would appeal to the masses. Thus, he may have intentionally avoided expressing the angst of human suffering, the sarcastic wit of parody, and the binding cynicism of satire that occurs in much of his music.” But their absence in part two, does not imply the complete resolution of the conflict between negative and positive aspects of the human spirit in Part One has been resolved. In part two, these dualities form an undercurrent through motivic references. The negative forces that tormented the soul with self doubt, were already grappled within the sixth Symphony. So it’s tragic elements need not reveal themselves here. The seventh deals so extensively with parody, that it to need have no part in the eighth rule would certainly be inappropriate and unwelcome. Having absorbed both tragedy and irony, Mahler needed to come to grips with art as the principal creative expression, which he illuminates and makes manifest through the conjunction of human and divine love.
The connection between music and text so evident in part one is also apparent in part two, where thematic and motivic material symbolizes the characters that appear in the closing scene of Goethe’s drama. Even the names of several of these characters indicate their representative nature. Philip Barford offers the following list of characters and the symbolic principles that they represent.
– The penitent, who is Gretchen represents penitence
– The three Mary’s forgiveness and redemption
– Pater Ecstaticus
– Pater Profundus intellect
– Dr. Mariano’s spiritual idealization and insight.
With the Eighth Symphony, Mahler comes as close as he ever did, to producing a true music drama according to symphonic principles. In no other Symphony has a composer more skillfully integrated music and text through the mechanism of motivic and thematic development, which also serves as a mechanism for symbolic representation. The eighth is one of the glories of both choral and symphonic music and should serve as the standard against which any Symphony that combines chorus and orchestra should be judged for some time to come.
Part Two begins with a prelude in E flat minor. It opens in true Bruchnerian fashion with a sudden quick flash and the violins on a tremolo on an octave E flat, embellished with a mere wisp of cymbals. The octave tremolo immediately softens to a hush and continues as an undertone that establishes an aura of mystery in the opening section. The revised version of Das Klagende Lied, and the Second Symphony opened in much the same way. Those the stages set for the introduction of primary motives. These motors are quietly and slowly stated in overlapping sequence in woodwinds and pizzicato low strings. A variant of lumen accende in pizzicato, low strings, a variant of lumen accende from part one, is played by pizzicato low strings, and forms the rhythmic and motivic substructure for the appearance of other motives. The structure of this variant has deeper motivic significance than may be readily apparent. It begins with a falling fifth, later returning to the original falling forth in lumen accende, followed by the rising phrase of the motive of longing, thus implying the underlying spiritual need for illumination.
Principle motives suddenly forced their way in on high woodwinds That startled us with their abrupt intrusion, but they quickly retreat like phantoms receding into the eerie atmosphere. Woodwinds keep repeating a version of the cry of pathos from the first and second symphonies, originally in Das Klagende Lied, that becomes a principal motive, sometimes softly whispering and sometimes loudly moaning its cry of despair. The first principal motives dotted rhythm associated with the pectoral motive apart one, its rising and falling minor second, relates it to the motive of Whoa. This three note motive represents the awesome wonder of nature, in its most elemental essence. It takes It’s shaped from the heart of existence pectoral. And its sense of all from the wall model. Like the lumen accende A motive stated in the base. The nature motive is followed by the motive of longing to which is added the arching motive of redemption. Thus, a conceptual progression from Whoa, through longing to redemption is already established at the beginning of part two, let’s listen.
These motives are then treated contrapuntal II against the sustain the flat tremeoloe played quietly and continuously by muted violins. The modes seem to call from the dark inner depths of consciousness for the regeneration of light. As motives heard at the beginning of part to begin to integrate, the principal theme begins to take shape in embryo after a sustained tone is added in front of the nature motive, bassoons and low strings immediately make it more melodic, by breaking up this note into a dotted rhythm, clarinets extend the phrase beyond the sequence of nature longing, by adding the motive of redemption at the end. This motivic combination is accompanied by rhythmic variants of lumen accende in pizzicato strings. A brief but blissful chorale on longing follows, during which the suster nu tau E flat octave tremolo is silent. The chorale ends on a playgirl cadence that resolves into an A minor chord, and brings back the violin tremolo to Archer in a reprise or extension of the proceeding introductory section.
After further development of the thematic motors, the tonality shifts back to E flat minor, forming a major to minor sequence that hints at the chordal motive of fate, so prominent in Mahler symphonies. Open harmonies continued to shift from major to minor and back again, the vapers atmosphere generates an unearthly aura. Suddenly, in mid measure, a forceful stroke in the basis jolts us out of the mesmerizing stillness that pervades the introduction. A variant of the nature motive ushers in the first of an extensive series of variations that evolve into the principal theme. The first variation begins in a slightly agitated state with great passion. The horns and cellos play the initial theme variant, a sequence of a whole tone, the nature and logging motives, against a faster version of lumen accende in pizzicato, lower strings, a turn figure followed by a leap of a fifth that resolves downward into a falling chromatic phrase combined to foreshadow the appearance later in part two and inverted version of longing follows the nature motive, seeming to drag it downward throughout the middle of this variation with forceful accents.
The sustained violin tremolo of the opening returns for only a few measures, beginning strongly and quickly diminishing, only when it reappears with a mighty thrust a step lower than before, to the passions generated in this variation dissipate. The music of the prelude now returns, but the linked motors and the pizzicato version of lumen accende that accompanies them are asserted more strongly, as if deeply affected by the passionate first variation, by the addition of a single quarter note, the mode typically constituted theme Varian changes the motive of redemption to a more than black figure. As this interlude between variations closes with a diminutive version of the nature mode, the music quiets down once again, with a strong upbeat on a dotted rhythm that recalls the upbeat to the glorious E major episode in the slow movement of the Fourth Symphony.
The passions are stirred anew with the advent of the second variation in a much brisker temple. First violins play a combination of triplets and 16th that offers a hint of the intense violin figuration that will accompany Pater Profundus is a passionate description of the love of flame with emotion. Beneath the art and outpourings of violins and woodwinds, the embryonic theme variant can be heard first in oboes, and horns, and later integrated with the intense figuration that inflames it with order, occasional appearances of a falling Second, the motive of whoa imply that love is often tinged with suffering. The intensity and passion of the music continue undiminished to the end of the variation. The motivic elements of the first variation are broken up in the second as they interrelate with the passionate figuration. They soon become one with it, as if in the powerful grip of the emotions that stirs negative elements such as the falling second of whoa and descending chromatics see to draw this variation into their sinister web, their perverseness seems out of touch with the sublime nature of redemption. The extrapolated turn figure from the first variation reappears just before the tragic close of the second variation.
At the end of the chromatic descent that closes the second variation, the third variation begins, violin strike out with chilling force, and effect produced not only by the sudden thrust of enormous power, but also by first violins playing the theme on the G string, doubled by cellos in their high register. The effect is made more poignant by the pizzicato lumen attend a figure that opened part two, here played by the rest of the low strings. This variation reacts to the previous one by including chromatic elements from it in the longing motive, such that it rises and falls in half rather than whole steps. As a result, the intervocalic leap following its three ascending nodes changes to a minor fifth, the diabolos in musicus, which was used in part one to signify human weakness, preyed upon by evil influences that seekers avert the life force. In this thematic variation, the whole note that was added to the theme variant at the beginning of the first variation is retained.
As the music presses forward, intervals of belonging motive are stretched, creating dissonances that symbolize the intervention of the demonic spirit. In a few measures the violins tremolo E flat octave, returns its tremulous shutter, again chilling the atmosphere. It functions throughout the prelude as a kind of ritornello. Here is the beginning of the third variation.
Now the third variation moves into its next phase, continuing to be developed by inversion thematic alteration, an extension of the rising three note upbeat of longing. The downward motion of this motivic fragment produces a countervailing phrase that ascends into the pectoral figure that began this theme buried. In a deeply moving climax horns add the twisting four note motive of their targets churn from the fourth song of Kindertotenlieder, and the variation continues with a heavily accented turn that elicits a feeling of hope. After the theme variant is repeated, as at the beginning of this variation, a hint of the redemption motive on a descending scale appears. Its extension falling forcefully until it lands on the first note of the next variation, more or uses this particular type of telescoping technique extensively in part two. Here’s the rest of the third variation.
Variation four begins very softly in the flutes, it has a light scherzando quality that anticipates the music of the boy’s choir that appears later on. With this sprightly music, the mood lightens and becomes rather playful. The nature figure begins this variation and longing is replaced with a rising third and a frolicking version of the motive of der Tag ist schön. After other woodwinds add their own version of his variation, changing the double notes from rising to falling intervals, trumpets bring back the darker side of the theme variant that takes shape during the third variation. It ends with a five note morden used as part of a cadence. The brief fourth variation concludes with a strong statement of the nature motive in repeated sequence in low winds against the violence sustained a flat tremolo and the pizzicato in lumen accende A figure in bass strings. As the music fades, the introduction concludes, and the scene is set for the anchorites chorus. It functions as the fifth variation in a slow tempo, and to the accompaniment of the pizzicato lumen accende A figure in low strings. The theme variant returns in flute and clarinet no longer tainted with chromaticism as it from a distant height male voices from both choruses enter in strettle like fashion, whispering echoes of an extension of the nature motor with half node couplets preceding it.
Mahler instructs the male voices to sing in the manner of sharp and rhythmic speech, akin to Gregorian chant. The combination of staccato articulation in the voices and fluid legato in woodwinds creates an eerie spectral atmosphere. At first, the theme variant seems out of kilter rhythmically, because of frequent meter ships. Following the combination of the half note couplet, and the nature mode of belonging phrase from lumen accende is sung in stretto. With the support of lower string pizzicato’s, a burst of light briefly flashes in high woodwinds illuminating the shadowy scene. Unexpected breaks in the fragmented vocal line, create moments of tension that are never fully dispelled when the voices re-entered. Falling minor seconds in winds give the music a tragic character. In the midst of a choral version of lumen accende, the chorus suddenly stops, and a calm descends over the music. The theme variant returns in low instruments acquired him like chorale for wins on longing leads to a full play goal cadence as during the opening preview, here is the beginning of the fifth variation. Once again the wispy sound of a soft symbol ushers in the return of the flat octave violin tremolo that had been silent for a few measures. It serves as a background for an extension of the anchor ride chorus in two part counterpoint on elements of the theme variant, accompanied by the lumen accende de pizzicato figure. Just when this combination of motivic and thematic elements begins to develop on an inverted version of longing and the tenors, a break cuts off further progress. Here as Mahler sometimes want to do, he anticipates the goal towards which part to inexorably proceeds by giving us a hint of the opening measures of the chorus mysterious when the ostinato lumen accende motive returns quietly in string pizzicato woodwinds heave a faint sigh on a chord that shifts from minor to major, the converse of the harmonic motive of tragic fate. Thus begins a sequence of chords that modulate to E flat major, as a solo horn plays the longing motive that leads to the sixth variation, here then is the conclusion of the fifth variation from the hint of the chorus mistake is theme in chorus one.
With the sixth variation, the hushed nocturnal atmosphere completely disappears, and what was cast in shadows now emerges into the light. The baritone solo in the role of Pater Profundus, is the only voice heard in the sixth variation. This variation can be divided into four sub-variations to the singer’s passionate outpouring of inner torment. The principal theme variant is transformed rhythmically by using a syncopated triplet figure. For the rising notes of the longing motif. Only strings accompany the soloist at first supporting him both thematically and harmonically, after he completes the first part of the theme, strings add a single measure of descending chromatics from veiny to have part one, following a repetition of the theme variant by the baritone soloist, with wider rising intervals on the opposite of longing. woodwinds add a measure of the entire motive for emphasis. The vocal line sung to the words Pfeile, durchdringet mich, begins with a falling fifth that reveals veiny one to which the nature motive is upended. This sub-variant concludes with the nature motive after an inverted version of longing, while violins add the five node turn figure introduced during the first variation. In the very next measure, the baritone continues by inserting the turn figure imitated twice as fast and the violins that replace the rising three-note upbeat of longing.
The theme variant is extended by an elongated phrase song to the words Ewiger Liebe Kern! everlasting heart of love, accompanied by arching scales in contrary motion. The tempo increases on a series of descending modal scales and strings and presses forward to an Allegro. Here the climax of the variation occurs as trumpets forthrightly assert luminosity. Adding the more than like figure associated with the developing theme varied as the music approaches a cadence, the bass soloist as Pater Profundus enters from a deep region. Mid metagame tome as Mahler says in a mighty voice, with his entrance, the seventh variation begins. The tonality reverts to E flat minor, and the tempo suddenly slackens. But without varying too far from the brisk pace set for Pater Esstasicus flames of passion described by Pater Profundus are likened to natural phenomenon, floating torrents of 1000 streams, woods and rocks surging like waves, waters thundering into the chasm, and a bolt of lightning clearing the misty atmosphere. All of these visual images are set to music that surges and recedes with the use of emotion. Although this variation starts on an upbeat, like the second variation, it varies significantly from the preceding one. accented chromatic runs wide interval like leaps, and descending scales characterize the textual description of love of flame with passion. During this extensive variation of super octave upbeat on a dotted rhythm, recalls the second variation, and a horn in tones the motive of longing, reflecting the feelings expressed by the singer. The nature motive appears at the end of profundas, his initial vocal expression on the word fliesen flow. Low strings surge upward with a flurry of rising sixteenths that formed an important multivac element of the sixth Symphony. The seventh variation has a downward pull, particularly in the falling minor seconds of the motive of wall and the inversion of longing that counterbalances the ascending thrusts of 16th in the base, and the frequent octave and super octave upward leaps in the vocal line. As the variation begins to ascend, a solo horn plays the first two measures of the initial theme variable, followed by the solo trombone on Lumina chenda. That also echoes a Morden like figure from the vocal line. longing is then made into an arch like phrase that leads into a descending line in the voice echoed by the trumpet. The upbeat on an octave leap in dotted rhythm from the second variation returns in violins in canonic imitation with the solo voice profundus describes the savage roaring from the lower regions that surrounds him on a phrase beginning on an upward leap of an octave in dotted rhythm, and then descending in the manner of veiny to recalling the violin version of Oh schmelz. To Aldo string, or pain, you will pervasive one, from the finale of the second simple echoing phrases overlap and tight sequence. The descending scales of veiny to appears in the next sub variation in a dialogue between soloist and violins against the upward thrusting figure from the sixth Symphony, here played by low strings in triplets instead of 16th. During this lengthy variation, the motive of longing and the descending veiny to fragment predominate, their rhythmic On Tour being constantly reshaped as the pace of the tension increases toward a climax, the bass soloist follows the longing motive with a strongly accented elongated version of it. He adds the more than like figure heard earlier, sung to the words simply Leber’s Bolton. Seaver Condon is our loves messengers who tell us this is echoed by the brass in a majestic statement of the power of law. Here’s the first part of the seventh variation. During a brief orchestral interlude, the seventh variation is summarized in contrapuntal overlay. Its elements presented with great force and urgency. Soon the tempo again presses forward for the basis re entry, broad and brisk tempos alternate, mirroring the struggles and torments expressed in the text, and culminate in a fervent prayer for relief from the suffering provoked by intense passion. As the soloist reaches the height of his range, pleading in agony to be released from the bondage of his emotions, the instrumental accompaniment becomes more contrapuntal on divergent rhythms and motives that mirror partner performances tormented confusion. At the close of this variation, the tempo becomes Wait here, as Pater Profundus calls out in deepest distress, his plea for deliverance from the tortures of passion that inflame his soul. his plea begins with a soaring octave upbeat, heard at the beginning and throughout the variation, it concludes with a variant of lumen accende anticipated in the brass and then contorted on performances last line, mine do 50 hertz, so I’m in deepest pain. It ends with the wall motive, as if to emphasize the tragic aspect of Pater Profundus deep despair. This concluding line recalls the end of the early movement from the second Symphony. Here it sounds deeply tortured, rather than confident and blissful. Solo its last words are telescoped into the principal theme variant played in horns and cellos as a bridge to the orchestral transition that follows. This transition consists of an interplay of motivic elements from the theme variant, primarily focusing on nature and longing.
During the orchestral bridge passage, the pace gradually increases as motives from the theme vary and build on a crescendo that ushers in the next variation. With the eighth variation, we first hear from the chorus of angels in a sprightly Allegro to see so tempo, they lighten the mood with a joyful version of the theme variant that reorders its various elements in celebration of a victory of the Spirit. In a bright key of B major, the angels begin this variation on the falling fourth of veiny one, followed by the longing motor, as it appeared in lumen accende two, and they end with the Morden-like phrase introduced earlier. Low strings play the same theme in stretto. Beginning one measure after the chorus enters. As this new version of the theme variant ends, clarinets and trumpet play a version of the pectoral motor from part one, stretching its first interval to a rising sixth. woodwinds follow with a descending phrase from lumen accende two that had succeeded this figure in part one, when in function as a counter theme, high strings add an ascending variant of any one that brings back the angels on yet another reworking of lumen Archon de to the contrapuntal interplay of the Matic material recalls part one. A Chorus of blessitt boys enters at the close of the angels second stanza, with yet another version of the theme Varian bidding all to circle around and sing and joyous Adoration of the Holy Spirit. Sustained trills enhance the playful mood, as the two choruses present their own version of the theme variant in CounterPoint. This entire variation anticipates the so called scherzo movement of part two, that is said to begin at its conclusion. Let’s listen to the orchestral interlude into the eighth variation. And the first part of that variation tempo soon increases as choruses conclude their celebratory offering to a series of descending scales in woodwinds and pizza kados in second violins and violas first violins play upon the nature motive, or the brass in tone of fanfare, the motive of the hero in the form in which it appeared just before the grand chorale.
In the finale of The Fifth Symphony. A sequence of rising trills enhances the joyous atmosphere. The theme variant that follows is slightly altered from the proceeding variation, sung by the Boys Choir, and played forcefully in the depths of the orchestra first, and then in high winds and strings, preparing the way for the so called scherzo section.
The chorale from part one, based upon a sequence of four half notes, ushers in a new section as the tonality changes to G major.
Here’s the orchestral interlude that forms a bridge passage to the ninth variation. The brief orchestral interlude we just heard is based upon the floating figuration that first appeared after the corral was introduced in part one, a chorus of younger angels enters with the ninth variation in the principal key of E flat major, marked scared Songdo. Here Mahler juxtaposes a flittering rhythmic accompaniment with a long line lyrical version of elements of the theme variant played in a new sequence. How sweetly the voices blend in thirds on this diatonic treatment of the theme variant against a livelier orchestral background.
Again, the chorale from part one returns, this time as part of the vocal line, after which the female chorus sings in an inverted version of longing to the original form of that motive in cellos and bassoons. Suddenly, the tonality switches to the minor for the 10th variation, the younger angels make reference to the evil that has been defeated at last. In the first part of this variation, a downward turn and falling fifth in the vocal line recall of anyone. Yet these hints of anyone seem to interject a negative element by deflecting the tonality to the minor mode, even though they retain the light accompaniment of the previous variation. altos repeat the waffling phrase they sang with the sopranos at the beginning of the ninth variation, trying to lighten the mood. Sopranos follow knock with the earlier vocal line, but with the leggero accompaniment song in contrary motion with flutes and violins. The orchestra then introduces the next variation with the donum motive from the infirm, a theme of part one. E flat major returns for the 11th variation, yet another reconstruction of the theme variant sung by the younger angels to the words, flute in Geister spürten die Schmerzen der Liebe, spirits felt the pangs of love.
The continuing leggero accompaniment implies that such emotions have been conquered, stepwise motion creates the impression of a childlike christmas chorale the infirm of figure that introduced it is now integrated into the AV cake motive is also added song to the words var. Vaughn Spitzer pine, leading to a new version of the nature motive that now rises by a fourth after the dotted rhythm, and then from there still higher by a third. On the joy of summons yourself be jubilant, the nature motive sounds more uplifting than when enveloped in mystery at the beginning of part two. After a full cadence and orchestral interlude follows in the rapid temple, incorporating elements of the veiny one, lumen accende, and they need to in conjunction with descending scalar figuration. When the pace slackens, the music softens on strong sustained chords that support the light accompaniment, moving the music ever so gently into the next variation.
Notice how repeated falling half notes and inverted version of the corral from part one helped to calm the music during this transition passage.
Just as the music seems to reach an equilibrium of flight of sound emerges from the orchestra on a swaying rhythm based on the light accompaniment of the previous variation, recalling the transition to confirm our two during the development section of part one, after a very brief Prelude in D minor, E flat major returns for the 12th variation. trombones assert the light motive with authority to the contrasting calm of swaying rhythm. When the meter changes to common time, the chorus of more perfect angels enters softly on informer one, while a solo Viola rhapsodizes on veiny one air as chorus two takes up the next line of the stanza, the solo violin plays the same meandering figuration that accompanied infermo.
In part one, veiny one shines out in horns in the midst of this choral segment, symbolizing the enlightenment of the soul, descending scales from veiny to follow in stretto like sequence, a tonal shift to the minor occurs as these angels recall the pains of earthly life and weak beat coral entrances create a sense of instability. Much of this variation is based upon material from the thermometer to divers, which formed the closing section of the exposition in part one. These allusions to Part One suggest that if human weakness results from corporeal existence, then personal strength must need to abstract human emotion by making it selfless and subject thus purifying the physical aspect of the Spirit. To the music of virtute firmans the spirit of everlasting strength, and alto soloist from chorus 2 responds by declaring the impossibility of dividing the human spirits dual nature of female chorus answers the challenge by affirming that only ewige Liebe, eternal love, can heal the wound of a divided spirit as they sing the infirma theme.
Violins accompany their responsively with veiny two’s lyricism, which now includes the der Tag ist schön motive, a hint that the light of day, a symbol of illumination of the senses will bring with it redemption through law. During the conclusion of this variation, the tempo broadens as choruses sing an inverted version of the light motive to the concluding words, the A of galega nur fer marks zu scheidel, eternal Love alone could separate them. This variation concludes on a full cadence that ends on the same note with which the next variation begins. Another example of molars telescoping technique. Here is the 12th variation.
With the 13th variation, the scherzando music returns and the tempo gradually increase as the younger angels reappear, to sing a new version of the theme variant. This light and gay scherzando as the theme variant develops in female voices doubled by high woodwinds.
Major and minor modes counter one another as the singers sense the presence of the redemptive spirit, they catch a glimpse of the blessing boys, while circling about in joyous anticipation of the spirits illumination, this variation is basically the same as the purely orchestral fourth variation, beginning with the minor second version of the nature motive, followed by two half notes from the chorale of part one, with the motive der Tag ist schön and concluding with a dotted rhythm relating to nature, that falls by a fifth. Its combination of childlike phrases with a distorted version of nature on the word, petal son her seems contradictory. When this new version of the theme variant is sung for the third time, with minor modifications, the chorale is added, after which the theme variant is extended in stepwise motion, as the tonality modulates into G major, woodwind trills and glockenspiel maintain the lighthearted character of this variation, despite strange modal shifts, Dr. Marianus enters in the new key as he sings softly from the highest purest cell with a bolder female chorus on a scherzando’s sub variant to the principal theme. This sub-variant incorporates the donum figure from part one that relates to the spirit motive and returns as part of the nature motive, it is sung to the alliterated word Diesen, made more prominent and colorful by the glockenspiel. Contrasting elements of the nature motive fall and rise in sequence to the accompaniment of fleeting violin figuration.
The music becomes even brisker and more elated, as the key switches to B major for the 14th variation. At this point, the scherzando tempo returns. The variation is introduced by the revised donum motive heard earlier, which will also be heard during Mater Gloriosa‘s appearance that follows this variation.
Dr. Marianu’s and the blesser boys sing countervailing thematic variants of the scherzando version of the principal theme. Marianus provides a capitalized version, while the boy choir expands upon the thematic variation last heard in the trumpets leading into this scherzando segment. After taking a subordinate position to the forceful declarations of the blessed boys, Dr. Marianus becomes gradually more assertive, as earlier chordal when trills ring out with sheer joy. During this brief variation, the descending phrase veiny 2 and the chorale from part 1, are inserted into the developing theme variant. In addition, the version of the motive of redemption that had already become a part of the theme variant is altered by having the third of its four nodes four by a third instead of a second, an inverted version of the chorale circles around the Morden figure in Boys Choir. Various motific and thematic elements can join in this music of glad tidings and usher in a new section, misleadingly referred to by some as the finale of part two. Here is the 14th variation.
On an exalted plane, Dr. Marianus begins the 15th variation in a state of profound ecstasy as he sings his pay on of praise to the highest mysteries of the world, referring to the central characters part 2 the Mater Gloriosa, in Mahler’s heavenly key of E major, he extols her splendor as being two reconfigured elements from the theme variant, principally, the infrequently used Morden figure echoed first by the solo horn, to which is added a hint of the AV kite motive in rising scalar phrases.
Marianus is the principal purveyor of this variation, confirmed by the responsive role of strings and winds, during this variation melodic phrases lead toward fulfillment but when it is achieved, the music becomes self-sustaining and lacks forward motion and aspiration. One might conclude from the absence of further points of arrival that Mahler intended to replicate musically, a philosophical concept drawn from the text that which presses toward fulfillment already contains its own fulfillment. Mah uses echo effects to stress certain motif elements. He contrasts motives by juxtaposing an elongated version against the original, or by simultaneously or responsively, stating them in contrary motion. For example, while Marianus sings the second line of his extensive solo to the rising AB Kate motive, flutes and violins play its descending inversion. Both longing and a big kite are frequently inverted during the course of this variation, and thereby forced into a submissive role. The original form of the longing motive appears briefly in oboes and violas before the second stanza. From here the tempo presses forward slightly as Marianus begins his next stanza to the same melodic line with which his variation began. As violins rise on the Morden figure, cellos strongly asserted lumen accende keeping ever present the concept of enlightenment as a means to redemption violins rework the Morden figure to create a melodic line that joins the motives of redemption and der Tag ist schön taken up at the same time by Marianus, groupings of four note phrases based upon these motivic elements are continuously manipulated and reconfigured during this variation.
After Marianus concludes his glorification of the virtues of the eternal feminine on a leap upward to a high B natural resolves downward by a step. The orchestra comments upon some of the melodic elements of this variation, when the tonality gradually shifts to the Home key E flat, the music softens. One senses that the fervor passion is expressed by Pater Ecstaticus and Pater Profundus have now been pacified, Mahler presents the last lines of Doctor Marianus song of praise as a peaceful interlude that gently leads to the next variation. A solo horn alludes to lumen agenda, as the flutes hint at redemption. delicately the singer in tones and elongated version of the Morden figure, ending with a falling second as flutes ascend to the heights, cellos sound lumen accende once again. Marianu’s gently sings the final words of this verse, Wenn du uns befriedest to an inverted version of longing that leaps upward by seventh oboes and clarinets conclude this bridge passage with a new version of lumen accende that retains the falling fourth with which the original version began, but forces the notes that follow downward opposing their usual ascent in a very slow tempo, the 16th variation begins devotionally as Marianus calls to the pure female spirit, young fro with the music of tender longing.
Mahler inverts the falling forth from veiny one and lumen accende, so that it now rises and adds an ascending phrase from veiny to some very broadly and accompanied by a solo violin that stretches the rising fourth to a sixth, followed by the Morden phrase Marianu’s longingly calls for moutere mother to the same rising fourth, some to young fro earlier, this time it is followed by the chorus on a broadened version of the Morton figure. Sustained notes float through the air, shimmering with the old tremeloes long arching phrases combined with augmented and diminutive versions of the Morden figure, while the inverted variant of longing is sung by Dr. Mariano’s against its original version played by the solo horn. During the close of this variation, violins softly ascend to the celestial regions on sustained tones that move toward a climax, but not occurs. Instead, the music stops short of closure, and the tempo suddenly becomes brisker, as horns, a certain lumen accende adding as a tag ending the stretched variant of the pectoral figure from part one. Notice how lumen accende begins to sound like the maestro singer march from the finale of the seventh Symphony at this faster pace.
In the bridge passage to the next variation that follows, woodwinds play a stretched version of the motive of redemption, sounding like Bell tones, followed by the Lomi motive and horns and then violins. The pace increases with urgency. A solo trumpet plays the longing motive, followed by the Morden figure and ending on longing, with an awkward leap of faith, which generates a gorgeous chordal harmony with high winds and strings, accompanied by arching arpeggios, and pianos and two harps all seem to sound enough to the heavenly gates as the temple slackens, a single trumpet slowly descends on a long span of arpeggios, telescoping into the next variation.
It is not surprising that Mahler modulates to his heavenly key of E major for the 17th variation that follows, for it is both one of the most beautiful of all the variations and the closest to the chorus Mysticus soon to come. In an extremely slow tempo, violins softly float on waves of harp arpeggios that anticipate the closing section of Der Abschied from Das Lied von der Erde. The violins tender long line melody consists primarily of rhythmic permutations of the motive of redemption. This melody also recalls the melodic phrase to which the soprano sang the words past nice to put in songs believed you have not lived in vain in the finale of the second Symphony, and looks forward to the AV, conclude Das Lied von der Erde. The violins tender long line melody consists primarily of rhythmic permutations of the motive of redemption. This melody also recalls the melodic phrase to which the soprano sang the words past nice to put in songs believed you have not lived in vain in the finale of the Second Symphony, and looks forward to the AV, conclude Das Lied von der Erde.
Just before chorus two enters, the music is suspended on a sustained G sharp and violins that appears to be the top note of another but more fulfilling statement of redemption, but it fails to descend into a cadence. It is as if we are suspended momentarily between longing for redemption and its realization. A horn takes this unresolved statement of redemption elsewhere, as it continues from the suspended G sharp with the Morden figure, tenors and basses from the from chorus to add a horizontal desk hand in a soft chant like monotone while the theme variant begins on the arching motive of redemption in high woodwinds over the Morden figure in the solo horn, waves of soft arpeggios and sustained chords on harmonium and winds gently caressed this heavenly variation Celestia and piano add harmonic support and embellish the atmosphere with sparkling tones. Soon the music begins to climb slowly to the heights on the longing motive. When violins hold a crescendo on the top note of longing, yearning for fulfillment, strong rushes of rising broken seventh chords and harps and piano sweep the suspended chord upward, as it continues to build to a long awaited climax.
But again no climax occurs. Instead the music soften suddenly, and without reaching a full cadence proceeds to the 18th variation in slow floating motion over shimmering tremeloes in Celestia, and piano and waves of harp arpeggios, the full chorus softly continues its pleading questions, seeking to overcome human weakness and find salvation to the accompaniment of the motive of redemption. As choral forces stretch the rising interval of redemption still further, they anticipate the chorus Mysticus at the height of a crescendo on a suspended seventh chord in B major. In preparation for the shift to that key soon to come the tempo presses forward, horns ring out lumen accende while the chorus sings the same motive twice as slowly, the concluding note of which telescopes into the second part of this variation.
When the key changes to be major, and the tempo moves forward, the penitent enters with a woman’s chorus of sinners. Hi woodwinds extend this redemption based variation, slightly altering the theme variant to include the Morden figure, harp arpeggios continue made more radian by glimmering keyboard tremeloes and inverted version of longing soon replaces the redemption motive as a thematic element in the vocal line. redemption shifts to the violins and then to a solo horn.
Following a series of overlapping statements of the inverted longing figure mob now pika tricks enters to begin the 19th variation. At first orchestral forces are reduced to a chamber ensemble, providing a primarily harmonic support, and decorative arpeggiation. Mahler directs the soprano soloist to sing her pennant in prayer with halting expression. She begins softly expanding upon the redemption motive that she sings mostly on sustained tones. When she becomes more assertive, varying farther from her initial melodic line, woodwinds and solo violin play their own reworking of this sub variation as a counter melody, a major to minor sequence of arching figures in solo violin, which hints at Kindertotenlieder leads into the second part of his variation. Now in E flat major. An interesting interplay of automatic variants from the melodic line in solo voice and violins, takes up most of the sub variation. It concludes with repetitions of the donum motive, played with the arching phrase of redemption, both given the same rhythm. Here is the entire 19th variation.
Key shift to E flat minor changes the mood for the 20th variation sung by Mulier Samaritana, the descending line with which he quietly begins this variation recalls host them from part one, thus casting a shadow over the singers description of the fountain of life. During the first part of this variation, elements of the scherzando theme song earlier by the boys course, are played by solo violin and flute, brightening the scene. When the key changes to E flat major, the vocal line takes an upward turn, developing the theme sung by the boys chorus with various permutations of the longing motor, scattered about high woodwind strings and harp. Piccolo and flutes ascend to the heights as the next variation approaches.
Samaritana’s new thematic figure opens the 21st variation. For vocal line begins with a phrase that recalls the contours of the gang Hoyt Morgan scuba swell tune from theGesellen song cycle. There was also used as the principal theme of the first symphonies opening movement. The corral from part one appears in heavily accented winds on a molto retard, Samaritana’ss last line is sung to a descending phrase that moves toward a cadence, which is reached when she suddenly jumps a full octave on the tonic note. At the height of a crescendo, an orchestral bridge passage takes us to the next variation. trumpets lead the way with lumen accende over falling fourth civil winds that lead to a hint of redemption on high woodwinds. This passage also gives us a foretaste of Das Lied von der Erde relating particularly to its Trinkilied movement. A glittering four bar orchestral transition leads directly into the next variation, and brings with it another change of key to G minor.
Scherzando music dominates the next few variations, in a brisk tempo the 22nd variation features Maria Aegyptiaca further develops the principle horizontal musical line of the proceeding variation with frequent turns playfully into woven with the voice. The orchestration remains light textured, with string and woodwind trills used for decorative effect. At the beginning of this variation, second part, flutes and oboes returned to the redemption motive that began the 19th variation, they add the motive der Tag ist schön. Thereafter the singer spiritedly varies the melody by stretching intervals inverting scalar phrases variation 23 begins with a key change to C major.
The tempo continues to increase rapidly in preparation for the vocal trio that will dominate both this and the next variation of flutter with nervous anticipation the music is whisked along, as if by a whispering when Magna Peccatrix, Mulier Samaritana and Maria Aegyptiaca form a trio entering canonically on the redemption motive that figures prominently during this variation. The vocal trio sings around delay to two part CounterPoint. The vocal line contains several permutations of the principal motives contrasting stepwise motion, with leaps of an octave, and a fourth immaculately interwoven CounterPoint. After the trio concludes, woodwinds and violas briefly continue the variation, and bassoons sing the theme variant that now begins with redemption and continues with the descending for note phrase heard earlier.
For the 24th variation, the tonality changes to a bright a major, as the scherzando music continues in the strings, combining staccato eighths with trill half notes. For the second part of the female trio, Mahler combines two vocal lines, Aegyptiaca enters one measure early on the previous schrzando upward arching phrase. Then Peccatrix and Samaritana, sing the sweet strains of the ninth variation that combines childlike playfulness in the alto voice and warm, motherly tenderness in the two upper voices. As the three singers develop this melodic variation, they switch roles with Aegyptiaca taking the long line melody from the ninth variation and Peccatrix and Samaritana singing the joy scherzando theme, flutes some of this melodic variant in a four bar bridge passage, during which the tonality modulates in the direction of D major without actually reaching it. The vocal trio now sings their principal melody, redemption, with the first interval raised by a minor sixth to a passionate plea for pardon and blessing. While violins play a different version of the theme variant sung earlier by Magna Peccatrix. Clarinets echo the previous vocal line, as I Aegyptiaca continues alone to close this delightful variation. On a falling phrase, the telescope’s into the next variation.
Bathed in the sunshine of D major the 25th variation continues in the orchestra alone at a lively pace, much as when Magna Peccatrix first appeared in the 19 variation. The flowing scherzando music also continues decorated by half note trills and the strings, triplets and clipped arpeggios and harps and solo violin with the arching stepwise motion of the melody first heard during the 10th variation, though played softly, it sparkles gleefully, in a colorful rendition for flute, oboe, mandolin and harp. Four bars of a modified pared down version of the flitting rhythms that introduced Mater Aegyptiaca lead to the return of the pennington, now in the guise of Gretchen her simple warm heart treatment of the theme variant begins with the redemption motive and continues with a pair of two bar phrases the second step higher than the first, each omitting the downbeat. These phrases form a variant of redemption and an augmented version of long, heard against a rhythmically altered version of it in its usual rhythm in violins and oboe. Here’s the first part of variation 25.
As the first verse of Gretchen’s song concludes on the word Gloop, woodwinds play an inverted version of the thematic variation that ushers in a sub variation of the theme variant in the voice, which is then reconfigured in the woodwinds. A brief dialogue ensues between singer solo horn and cellos on longing. Given a wide upward interval on the last note, that does not resolve downward as it does in its regular form. To this attenuated longing motive, Gretchen sings, the prophetic words are calm, and continues to full cadence.
An orchestral interlude briefly summarizes the principal elements of this variation. The theme variant is modified by shortening to a second, the rising sixth from the first measure of Britain’s theme, with the nature motive variant added and the longing motive turned into an arching phrase, how joyful this new version of the theme variant sounds when played by the colorful combination of flute, clarinet, celestia and piano, again, strumming chords on the mandolin and rising arpeggios on the harp. The pace gradually increases as the blessed boys return with the 26th variation. Flutes and violins play Gretchen’s opening theme from the previous variation, the Boys Choir offers a different version of that previous variation, it begins with a three note upbeat of longing that extends higher in stepwise motion on the dotted rhythm of the nature motive. Then the three node upbeat of longing is repeated a fourth higher, followed by a leap of a fourth, that resolves downward by a fourth. The second part of this variation reworks its first two measures, and adds to them the motive of redemption, and the falling forth of veiny one. When the boy’s choir pauses for a few measures, woodwinds continue with the previous variation, extending it further. Violins begin the second part of this variation with a three note upbeat of long, that extends into a chromatic version of the AV kite motive, which is played against an abbreviated version of redemption in woodwinds and echoed by the breasted boys on their closing line, are appeared once Lehren, woodwinds follow with the clipped version of redemption, sung by Gretchen when she first entered in the previous variation, violins counter with the AV kite motive, working into a wide intervallic treatment of redemption. It’s two bars broken up by a measures wrist during which cellos have the Morden figure. This variation concludes with a double cannon on an elongated version of longing in the Boys Choir, and a combination of motives of redemption and longing in the strings. All are set a glow by long arching arpeggios in harmonium, celestia, piano and harps, how touching is the breasted boys plead for the knowledge that were redeemed them. Here is the entire 26th variation from its orchestral introduction.
During the closing section of this variation, the music gathers momentum building to an Allegro with which the next variation begins. Now in B flat major, the blessitt boys Gailey, sing a new scherzando version of the theme variant, the rising three node upbeat to which they sang the line. Uber vexed on shown on mark in Glidden with mighty limbs, he towers already above us, is now refashioned into repeated notes, soft trills strokes on the glockenspiel and sustained chords on the harmonium piano when harps give the impression of bell sounds ringing in the bright morning. Soon violins add a floating accompaniment to the sscherzando music, as the Boys Choir stresses elements of redemption and longing.
The four note chorale, now made to sound like the donor motive that extends the musical line is inverted and forced into the shape of an augmented Morden as the penitent enters on the AV kite motive, her musical line flows naturally into the return of in play. When the tempo broadens to a pace that is still a bit brisker than tempo one. She describes how Faust scarcely divines his heritage of newborn being, and is thus unaware of his being created in the image of the heavenly host. Even though he is imbued with God’s grace. This text coordinates perfectly with employers reference to being filled with AI grace.
One recollection of part one leads to another trumpets and horns whisper veiny one and the light motive, in turn, hinting at redemption soon to come. The upsurge in 16th note figure used in the seventh variation, to accompany Pater Profundus frenzy description of the suffering of a passionate soul returns here in the strings. At the end of the Pelican song, we hear the words ein neuer Tag, a new day, to a descending scale that turns into the motive of der Tag ist schön, meaning the day is beautiful, as the passage approaches a cadence when the temple slows down, we hear an example of Mahler’s overlapping technique, when the first note of the lumen accende theme in horns and then trumpets begins on the last note of this cadence. Lumen Accende enters here in the rhythmic pattern in which was first heard at the beginning of part one, glistening with tremeloes on Celestia and violins and supported by accented notes that descend stepwise in harp and low strings. The appearance of this vibrant theme at this juncture represents the blinding light of Faust’s new de identified with the light of the creative spirit. The tempo continues to slow down in preparation for the next variation as the Morden figure becomes increasingly prominent. Here is the entire 27th variation.
A perfect cadence into the return of E flat major brings with it the 28th variation and the long awaited Mater Gloriosa. In a very broad temple, she softly bekins Faust to rise to higher spheres, tenderly repeating the word Komm! on whole tones separated by a rising fourth, thus inverting the opening notes of veiny one solo flute and harp sound redemption and lower strings and harmonium play a retrograde variant of the light motive, using its dotted rhythm with wider rising intervals, as sung in part one to the word census. As Mater Gloriosa continues for summons to glory, isolated instruments play several principal motives. A horns have the motive of longing, leading into an inversion of der Tagen from the light motif played by lower strings at the beginning of this variation violins play the motive of redemption on a swell as the tempo becomes more rapid, and an overlapping wind group plays lumen accende, to which a flute and bassoon add the sense of us phrase, and a trumpet, the Morton figure. This array of isolated motives, whispered gently on different instruments surrounds the beauty of strains of the Mater Gloriosa as she concludes our all too brief appearance, she sings an elongated version of redemption with the mordan figure play by the horns, as the music proceeds to another full cadence. Male voices of chorus to softly repeat her first summons, Komm! Komm! recalling the Bhim bombs of the angels chorus and the third symphonies fifth movement, bass strings pluck out the redemption motive over a B flat chord in harmonium, that shifts by an augmented fifth as the tonality works its way back to E flat major, the key of the next variation.
In a hearty response to Mater Gloriosa, his call Dr. Marianus sings a hymn of grace in the extensive 29th and final variation, within adoring countenance, he bids the throng to look heavenward, blicket out to arising variant of the nature of motive, whose relationship to the pectoral motive, the three no dotted rhythm becomes all Important, first stated softly as if internalized, and then more assertively, this motivic figure ascends stepwise as when the blessed boys made it part of the 26th variation. This dotted rhythmic figure also resembles the young angels cry of yuck did Alf, it’s immediate repetition rises by a fourth, as does the version of Mater Gloriosa is beckoning call Komm! Komm! sung by chorus to at the end of the previous variation. violins enter on a strongly accented note that softens as they present a melodic phrase encompassing lumen accende, longing and the Morden figure, arching harp, arpeggios illuminate the melodic line. Marianus says repeated call of bleaker, health echoes throughout the orchestra, while choruses sing out Glorioso summons of Komm! Komm! bringing the variation to a stirring climax.
Now, Dr. Marianus begins a heartfelt song of dedication to the eternal feminine, the pace slackens and the orchestration thins out warmly and with devotional sincerity, Marianus sings a pay on to Mater Gloriosa, that summarizes the development of the theme variant thus far. The repeated notes with which the theme begins are now played as an augmented dotted rhythm that is immediately succeeded by the nature motive in its original form, and various reconfigurations of the longing motive. In a furtive sigh of the motive of whoa the following minor second, Marianus pleads to his beloved young frow motor for relief from the suffering generated by his earthly passions, and so vividly depicted by Pater Profundus. As the tempo gradually increases, his final words are sung to several versions of the motive of redemption into woven between woodwinds and strings, violins carry his fervent prayer heavenward, on a fusion of longing and redemption. The top note of longing falls at first, but is finally thrust upward with a mighty leap, bringing Marianus final prayer to a stirring conclusion, moved by his art and play, all choral forces sing out break it out in taught stretto on its original rhythm and augmented various elements of the theme variant on the mordant and longing figures follow immediately, and bring this part of the final variation to an urgent climax on a rush of E flat major that follows in Torrance from the orchestra.
After the last blicket off, the orchestra bursts out with renewed enthusiasm to begin an extended bridge passage that ultimately leads to the chorus mysticus. Despite a sense of eager anticipation the pace is leisurely and the mood relaxed, woodwinds assert the motivation redemption in strata with the brass over keyboard tremeloes and string arpeggios. The bleaker auf figure, now a full fledged motive is heard in sequential entries emanating from various sections of the orchestra. It’s heroic summons seems to call to all humanity to recognize the power of love, as the means to creativity. After a brief retard, the temple slows down further to Adagio, chorus one enters softly with the second stanza of Marianus says prayer said principally to the motive of redemption, with interjections of bleak Alf through a series of harmonic modulations that parallel the gradually increasing pace chorale forces expand upon Dr. Marianus song theme on waves of redemption that grow increasingly passionate. On another elongated version of that motive, the music builds to a climax, as the chorus is yearninglly call to the immortal representative of the eternal feminine, the Virgin Queen. Horns echo their cries, as if begging her to emerge.
At the height of a long crescendo on redemption that builds to a suspended seventh chord, E major is firmly established on a mighty roar of blicket Alpha in a wind choir in toning a courageous affirmation of faith. Sopranos and violins counter with redemptions arching phrase adding a slightly altered diminutive version. Part of the principal theme is thereby almost fully developed, throughout this choral response to Marianus says dedication to the eternal feminine, the bleak and alpha motive functions as a call to which redemption responds. After four measures, voices suddenly soften. Violins slowly ascend on a rising sequence based upon an abbreviated redemption figure that builds on a huge crescendo to waves a piano and harp arpeggios. But this build up fails to reach a climax, at its height chorus one joins chorus to as they swell to a glorious fortissimo in a plea for divine grace. On the final word of this segment of the poem, Canadian during this enormous welling up of sound, a solo trumpet plays the longing motive against redemption in high woodwinds and low strings. Once again, it seems that final resolution is at hand. Let’s listen from the E flat major bridge passage to the close of the choral section.
Yet resolution is again delayed as a cadence fails to occur. Instead, the orchestra takes over in an extensive interlude that gradually clears the air and softens the mood for the concluding section. Winds summon us to look to the celestial glory of heaven on an overlapping sequence of blicket Alf. Violins play a variation of longing in which the rising stepwise notes lead to a downward plunge instead of leaping upwards, followed by the motive of redemption. A string of arpeggios on piano and harps, creates waves of sound that gently rise and fall. When the tempo drives forward more urgently, each repetition of glickenhaus moves to a higher plane, while a single trumpet in tones the motive of longing in an ascending sequence of repetitions. This combination of longing and blicket off carries the musical loft to a strong it’s swift climax, Greenwich trombones hill the advent of redemptive enlightenment with a mighty statement of the light motive.
Leaving no time to bask in this luminous vision the music suddenly softens on the light motive played in an extremely elongated version by low winds punctuated by low string pizicatos and strong timpani strokes, violin tremeloes, and waves of triplet arpeggiation in Celestia, piano and harp anticipate the end of Das Lied von der Erde. Gradually, these celestial sounds fade away, and the music becomes more restful, as if gently floating in space, timpani subtly play the light motive. Soon the tempo picks up as horns whisper the bleak alpha motive in octaves and overlapping sequence. When trumpets and then clarinets place their lustrous tambours in the services of his vital motive. First, violins gently whispered lumen accende, almost unnoticeably second violins follow with the falling fourth of veiny one in long sustained octaves, while clarinets give out their last call of blicket out of which the music diminishes to extinction as Mahler directs.
Assaults stillness envelops the atmosphere during the heavenly bridge passage that follows. In a slow fluid tempo, a chamber ensemble emerges with music that floats gently upward on an elongated version of longing in Piccolo and harmonium, punctuated softly but distinctly by heart chords on the light motive, all drawing us heavenward against the countervailing force of descending arpeggios in Celestia, and piano. Strings almost disappeared during this segment, how serene the music becomes a glow with inner radiance, the light of eternal being has at last been made visible from the heights of Piccolo and clarinet when their way to firmer ground, on a long line set against half notes that descend to seventh chord harmonies in horns, trombones, and harmonium. All illuminated by Celestia and piano chords. This instrumental choir gently draws us into the blissful regions, where the chorus mysticus will put into words of transcendent truth, that which has already enlightened our inner being, and sit free our creative spirit.
We have reached at last the moment toward which part two, if not the entire Symphony has been directed. It is the moment of fulfillment that will provide what has been lacking thus far, a full statement of the principal theme and that essential element necessary to release the creative spirit, love. Beginning in a very slow tempo, the chorus mysticus sings girders immortal final lines to the principal theme that has been gradually developing during the preceding 29 variations. This heavenly theme culminates and sums up the process of building and striving that has motivated the entire Symphony. Combine choruses begin so softly, that they are hardly audible. Mahler directs that they sing wie ein bloßer Hauch, like a mere breath, one is reminded here of the initial choral entry in the finale of the Second Symphony, also song virtually acapella, as well as the setting of the same text by Liszt that ends the choral version of a Faust Symphony.
Modes of nature and longing are integrated with lumen accende in a musical representation of humanity’s yearning for spiritual enlightenment. Hardly just a coda, the concluding section is neither a mere afterthought, nor simply a reaffirmation, but a fulfillment of the underlying goal that has been the motivating force that brought the symphony to this deeply moving conclusion. Gradually, the tempo accelerates as the principal theme proceeds in increasingly contrapuntal fashion, to a gradually enlarged orchestral accompaniment. Solo horn enters on longing, followed by violins on a counter theme that includes an inverted version of longing, answered by its original form and woodwinds. On the wings of this uplifting motive, the music steadily rises higher and higher. The two solo Sopranos sing above the throng, urging us heavenward on an extension of the principal theme. Tension mounts as orchestral forces continued to grow, and the pace becomes more agitated longing and redemption combined, and interrelated contrapuntal II in both choruses and orchestra, as the music gradually becomes more determined, in its effort to achieve fulfillment it builds to fortissimo at first in the courses alone, and then more slowly in the orchestra.
The orchestral approached to the final lines of Goethe’s poem is nothing less than overwhelming. Yet another final line of text comes to mind here. The last line of the midnight song from Friedrich Nietzsche also Zoroaster, Zarathustra, appearing in the third symphonies Fourth Movement, alle freude will die ewigkeit, all joy wants eternity.
At last, the meaning of this profound utterance can be fully understood, and its connection with the principle of eternal recurrence better appreciate that which is eternal, will bring us onward by returning from whence it came. As if to verify this principle. First male and then female and male voices cry out ewig, ewig, forever, forever, on the redemption motive against it diminutive and abbreviated versions in the orchestra, the music continues to press forward. On the longing motive, all voices assembled, cry out Goethe’s final line xid hones in on, leading us onward to the symphony stirring conclusion. Chorale cries of ewig, ewig are stretched out as the section reaches what appears to be the symphonies ultimate climax, slowing down to multiple zante. Bass instruments and voices stirringly resound the motive of longing from the lumen accende theme against the ringing tones of its elongated version in solo trumpet, reaching upward and then descending into a cadence.
The moment of enlightenment and fulfillment has now arrived. It comes at the height of the music’s upward striving when all voices with oregan, enter fortissimo on an A flat chord, to sing the principal theme to Goethe’s inspired final lines. As happens very often in the eighth, the moment of arrival is reached precisely at the same time as a new theme. Here the principal theme enters. What a wondrous moment the arrival of true fulfillment. What is achieved here is not merely the climax of a symphony, but of Mahler’s entire of room. It will seem that Marla’s lifelong struggle with his inner demon. his doubts about the value of life in the face of relentless suffering, seem to be resolved in the magnificent chords that opens the symphonies closing section, repeating the opening lines of the chorus mysticous as the chorus continues on the longing motive, with the next line of Goethe’s text is to newer Heine graciousness, we sense the tremendous power and depth of these words. For as the word suggests, the suffering of our constant striving is truly ephemeral. Suddenly, choruses soften on the word greatness, as if to emphasize the emergent state of transcendence in progress. Male voices enter forcefully and ascend on logging directly into the AV cake motor. Logging has achieved its goal, eternal truth. Once more principle motivic elements are contrapuntally intertwined in the chorus, as the tempo gradually presses forward to the final apotheosis. Mighty horns assert the inverted variant of these modes heard during the long development of the principal theme, as male voices again urge us onward with the rising notes of longing, trumpets sound lumen accende, holding on to the top note for the full chorus to enter fortissimo with a complete cadence on Hinault. It is with this magnificent proration that the enormous choral forces conclude Goethe’s immortal poem.
On the courses final E flat chord that explodes on a powerful tam-tam stroke and internal brass band resounds with veiny one broadened as if to its limits, during which the corresponding internal brass and ensemble plays the light motive to usher in the final measures, to a sequence of shifting chords and winds and keyboards, beginning in the home key of E flat. The original light motive rings out on trombones with tremendous power, punctuated by timpani and cymbals. After another orchestral explosion at the end of the full statement of the light motive associated with the glorious section that ended part one. The light motive shines forth yet again in woodwinds and trumpets, horns and trombones play its inversion. Overwhelming sounds fill the hole with the power of transcendent illumination. When light again reaches heaven word, the welter of sound suddenly stops. Yet another interruption threatens to forestall final resolution. After a slight pause, which creates incredible tension, the entire orchestra again explodes in a blaze of glory on a massive E flat major chord. Emerging from this huge chord, an internal band often plays throughout the whole model, he calls us onward, with the first three notes of the light motive, but now the interval between the last two notes is stretched from a seventh to a ninth, implying that human striving is endless, even after fulfillment is achieved. On the stirring sound of a long held E flat major chord. This gigantic chorale Symphony concludes with a powerful orchestral stroke.
We should not overlook Mahler’s stretching out the interval between the last rising notes of the light motive at the end is intervocalic extension symbolizes the belief that the true glory of life is in the aspiring to fulfillment and not in its achievement, as the true essence of love is in the loving. It is also significant that Mahler uses the same music for the words each neuron glycine is, as for hear revered ereignis. In so doing, he duplicates Goethe’s a positive, the transitory is but an image and that which is fully adequate here becomes actual. Both phrases thereby interpret each other, that could just transitory is so, because it is not fully satisfied, it’s fleeting existence lacks substance and depth. passages where consummation is replaced by sustained tones rather than closure suggest that prior passages are not at all transitory. Love personified draws us onward. But it turns out that we strive for love as a motivation for further striving, not as an end in itself. In this sense, human love is transitory, but it provides the necessary catalyst for creativity, which is both more substantial and durable. On a different level Goethe’s final words evoke the old philosophical conflict between being and becoming, for Mahler. As for any true artists, it is the process of creation, animated and enhanced by striving, and not its completion in which true fulfillment may be found. What was needed for creativity to blossom forth in part one is discovered in part two, love as enlightened by the search for fulfillment. The human spirit requires artistic creation for true achievement, and artistic creation cannot truly happen without love. Thus, life is an eternal process that draws us onward. This affirmation of process as fulfillment is also a confirmation of the eternal return a response to the Nietzche movement of the third Symphony, “joy most does overcome sorrow there with the criado spirit is motivated by love. This is lights true worth.”
By Lew Smoley