History Symphony No. 4
Performances by Gustav Mahler
- 1901 Concert Munich 25-11-1901 - Symphony No. 4 (Premiere).
- 1901 Concert Berlin 16-12-1901 - Symphony No. 4.
- 1902 Concert Vienna 12-01-1902 - Symphony No. 4.
- 1903 Concert Wiesbaden 23-01-1903 - Symphony No. 4.
- 1904 Concert Amsterdam 23-10-1904 - Symphony No. 4 (twice).
- 1904 Concert Mainz 23-03-1904 - Symphony No. 4.
- 1905 Recording Leipzig 09-11-1905 - Symphony No. 4 - Movement 4: Lied: Das himmlische Leben (Sehr behaglich) (piano).
- 1907 Concert Frankfurt am Main 18-01-1907 - Symphony No. 4.
- 1911 Concert New York 17-01-1911 - Symphony No. 4.
- 1911 Concert New York 20-01-1911 - Symphony No. 4.
- Movement 1: Bedachtig-nicht eilen-recht gemachlich 18.00
- Movement 2: In gemachlicher Bewegung 10.00
- Movement 3: Ruhevoll (poco adagio) 21.00
- Movement 4: Lied: Das himmlische Leben (Sehr behaglich) 10.00
- Total duration 59.00
- Arrangement for piano duet by Josef von Woss (1863-1943).
- 00-00-1983: Boy soprano premiere. Jamie Westman performed and recorded the 4th symphony with Benjamin Zander and the Boston Philharmonic Orchestra. Westman performed the symphony extensively throughout Europe in 1984. Gustav Mahler's granddaughter Marina Fistoulari Mahler (1943) attended one of his performances at the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde (Musikverein, Musikvereinsplatz No. 1) in Vienna.
Arrangements Erwin Stein (1921) and Klaus Simon (2007)
Mahler's Fourth Symphony, which is available in two reduced orchestrations: one by Erwin Stein (a pupil of Arnold Schoenberg) made in 1921 and another by Klaus Simon from 2007.
The orchestration in the two adaptations is very similar. They both use single woodwinds, the full percussion called for in the Mahler original (omitting only the timpani), harmonium, and piano. The earlier version, by Stein, calls for two pianists at one keyboard for a fuller piano texture. The most significant difference between the two versions is Stein’s choice to omit the bassoons altogether from the woodwind section and to leave out all of the brass instruments. Simon’s version includes one bassoon and one horn, neither of which are used in Stein’s arrangement.
Stein’s version, with its slightly smaller ensemble, is the more chamber-like of the two arrangements. But the absence of the bassoon and horn also create some compromises. For example, certain prominent solo passages for the horn, such as the one in the first movement, measures 10-12, and the introduction to the second movement are performed on the clarinet in Stein’s version, which preserves the pitches, but not the original color or effect. Although the melody line of the clarinet is exactly the same as horn solo, it does not match Mahler’s opulent horn sound. The absence of the bassoon comes at a similar cost. Though the bassoon rarely has a solo melody in Mahler’s original, it is nevertheless crucial as harmonic support. Stein solves this by assigning some of the material for the bassoon to the viola and the double bass. Most often, Stein gives the bassoon material to the left hand of the harmonium.
The woodwind, percussion, and string writing in the two versions are mostly similar. As does Simon, Stein closely followed Mahler’s original string writing. He keeps all of the solo woodwind passages in his chamber version. However, his arrangement is focused on the string section rather than the woodwind section. The effect is of a string quintet with other instruments; it gives a greater impression of chamber music than does the more recent Simon version. At the same time it sacrifices some of the orchestral grandeur of Mahler’s original. This is more fully maintained in Simon’s arrangement.
- 00-00-1902 Vienna: Ludwig Doblinger (plate 31).
- 00-00-1905 Vienna: Universal Edition (UE) music publishers (reprint).
- 00-00-1911 Vienna: Universal Edition (UE) music publishers.
1902. Score published by Ludwig Doblinger.
1902. Score published by Ludwig Doblinger. Movement 1: Bedachtig-nicht eilen-recht gemachlich.
- 09-11-1905 Leipzig. Year 1905. Gustav Mahler. Symphony No. 4 - Movement 4: Lied: Das himmlische Leben (Sehr behaglich) (start 06:06). Welte-Mignon.
- 1930 Japan, Tokyo: World premiere electrical recording. Eiko Kitazawa (soprano) with the New Symphony Orchestra of Tokyo conducted by Hidemaro Konoye (1898-1973), Japanese Parlophone. 05-1930.